Behandler vi jodmangel med stoffskiftehormoner?

Det er titlen på et blogindlæg skrevet af den norske læge, Jan-Øyvind Lorgen på bloggen Frisksomenfisk.com.

Selv om overskriften Behandler vi jodmangel med stoffskiftehormoner? lyder som dr. Lorgens hypotese, hils dr. Lorgen og sig at den er - så at sige - allerede videnskabeligt bevist. Dr. Lorgen kunne ikke have mere ret, hvilket i den grad lover godt for hans patienter, hvis han da - i det hele taget - får lov til at praktisere medicin på tværs af, hvad den kollegiale lægestand, en gang for alle har vedtaget - angiveligt skulle være sandheden, hvilket det desværre er langt fra altid.

Men tilbage til "beviserne"... leveret bl.a. af dr. Sebastiano Venturi, der nok er den medicinske forsker i verden i dag, der ved mest om jod vs. menneskets udvikling og de medicinske aspekter af jod i forhold til helbred og sygdom.

Nedenstående er citeret fra artiklen Iodio ed Evoluzione ("Iodine and Evolution") præsenteret af Dr. Sebastiano Venturi på den Internationale Konference "Jod og brystkræft", der blev afholdt i San Leo (Pesaro-Urbino), den 26. oktober 2002. (Relazione presentata dal Dr. S. Venturi al Convegno Internazionale "IODIO e CANCERO DELLA MAMMELLA" tenutosi a San Leo (Pesaro-Urbino), il 26 Ottobre 2002.)

Foreløbigt på engelsk, men jeg vil forsøge at finde tid til at oversætte dette citat, medmindre der findes nogen gode sjæle "derude", der har tid og gerne vil hjælpe.

From English summary of "Iodine and Evolution" Published in Italian on-line: February 8, 2004, su DIMI-MARCHE NEWS del Dipartimento Interaziendale di Medicina Interna della Regione Marche www.dimi.marche.it/

Dr. Sebastiano Venturi - via Tre Genghe n.2; 61016 PENNABILLI (PU), Italy
Tel : (+39) 0541 928205 ; E-mail: venturi.sebastiano(at)gmail.com

SUMMARY
The authors report their hypothesis on the antioxidant role of iodine in the evolution of life on the earth. Iodine is the most electron rich of the essential elements in the animal diet, and as iodide (I-) enters in the cells by an iodide transporter. Iodide, which acts as primitive electron donor by peroxidase enzymes, seems to have an ancestral antioxidant function in all iodide-concentrating cells from primitive marine algae to more recent terrestrial vertebrates.

Thyroxine and iodothyronines seem also to have an antioxidant activity, by deiodinase enzymes, which are donors of iodides and indirectly of electrons. Thyroid cells phylogenetically derived from primitive gastroenteric cells, which during evolution, migrated and specialized in uptake and storage iodine-compounds in the new follicle, as reservoir of iodine, for a better adaptation of modern vertebrates to iodine deficient terrestrial environment.

MAMMALIAN EXTRATHYROIDAL IODIDE-CONCENTRATING ORGANS

In the mammalians, several extrathyroidal non-follicular organs share the same gene expression of NIS and particularly stomach mucosa and lactating mammary gland (26, 27). Salivary glands, thymus, epidermis, choroid plexus and articular, arterial and skeletal systems (4) have iodide-concentrating ability too. But what role does iodide play in these animal cells? We may chronologically differentiate on the basis of the phylogenesis and embryogenesis three ways of action of iodine :

  1. an ancient and direct action, on endodermal fore-gut and stomach and on ectodermal epidermis, where inorganic iodides probably act as antioxidants;
    ---
  2. a recent and similar direct action, on salivary and mammary glands, thymus, ovary and on nervous, arterial and skeletal systems;
    ---
  3. a more recent and indirect action of the thyroid and its iodinated hormones, on all vertebrate cells, which makes use of specific organic iodine-compounds: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which act in very small quantities and utilize T3-receptors. Indeed thyroid hormones contain less than 1/30 of total iodine amount.


We believe that all these actions of iodine may still take place into the cells of living mammalians.

In fact, Evans et al. (28) reported that 5 milligrams of potassium iodide (daily injected) acts as 0.25 micrograms of L-thyroxine in recovering the impaired functions of many organs of thyroidectomized rats. Furthermore Wolff (3) reported that two patients with goitre and hypothyroidism have been described in whom the ability to concentrate iodide was lost in the thyroid (and in gastric mucosa and salivary gland); both patients were treated with large doses of iodide alone: both responded well (regarding to growth, BMR, cholesterol, etc.).

This suggest strongly that while iodides are always necessary, the thyroid hormones are not indispensable for living organisms. The thyroid gland, with a progressively more developed morphology, is an evolute organ and its function started and was improved from primitive Chordata to more recent marine and fresh-water fishes, Amphibia, reptiles, birds, and finally mammals in which the thyroidectomy and hypothyroidism might be considered, in a contrary way of metamorphosis, like a sort of phylogenetical and metabolical regression to a former stage of reptilian life. In fact, reptilian features seem to be restored in hypothyroid humans such as a dry, hair-less, scaly, cold skin and a general slowdown of metabolism, digestion, heart rate, nervous reflexes with lethargic cerebration, hyperuricemia, and hypothermia.

Dobson suggested that Neanderthal man suffered Iodine-deficiency disorders caused by inland environment or by a genetic difference of his thyroid compared to the thyroid of the modern Homo Sapiens (29). Iodine-deficient humans, as endemic cretins, suffer physical, neurological, mental, immune and reproductive diseases. Iodine has surely favoured the progress and evolution of nervous system for a better adaptation to terrestrial environment.

Food and Nutrition Board and Institute of Medicine (30) have reported that iodine seems also have an important action on the immune system. The high iodide-concentration of thymus explains this important role. We have reported a significant and reversible immune deficiency in our Iodine-deficient population affected by high endemic goitre (31).

According to current WHO statistics more than two billion (milliarder/red.) people in the world live nowadays in Iodine-deficient countries. Their urinary iodine excretion is less than 100 ug per day, while the RDA of iodine is 150-200 ug. In the same Iodine-deficient territories, human and animal pathologies by Iodine-deficiency frequently coexist in the mammals (in particular herbivores) and in reptiles, amphibians and fresh-water fishes too.

In conclusion, we believe that the evolutionary adaptation of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental iodine deficiency is still not finished yet, and most of humans need still a correct (30) dietary iodine supplementation. We believe also that the knowledge of trophic, antioxidant and apoptosis-inductor actions of iodide might be useful for helping to prevent some extrathyroidal cancers. (End of citation)

REFERENCES

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  2. Smanik PA, Liu Q, Furminger TL, Ryu K, Xing S, Mazzaferri EL, Jhiang SM. Cloning of the human sodium lodide symporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Sep 13;226 (2):339-45.
  3. Wolff J Transport of iodide and other anions in the thy-roid gland. Physiol Rev. 1964; 44:45-90.
  4. Brown-Grant K . Extrathyroidal iodide concen-trating mechanisms. Physiol Rev .1961; 41:189-213.
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  8. Venturi S. Preliminari ad uno studio sui rapporti tra cancro gastrico e carenza alimentare iodica: pros-pettive specifiche di prevenzione. 1985; ed. USL n.1, Regione Marche; Novafeltria (PU).
  9. Venturi S, Venturi A, Cimini D, Arduini C, Venturi M, Guidi A. A new hypothesis: iodine and gastric cancer. Eur J Cancer Prevent. 1993; 2:17-23.
  10. Venturi S, Venturi M Iodide, thyroid and stomach car-cinogenesis: Evolutionary story of a primitive antioxidant? Eur J Endocrinol . 1999;140:371-372.
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  12. Kuepper FC, Schweigert N, Ar Gall E, Legendre J-M, Vilter H, Kloareg B. Iodine uptake in Laminariales involves extracellular, haloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of iodide. Planta 1998; 207 :163-171
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  22. Tseng YL, Latham KR. Iodothyronines: oxidative deiodination by hemoglobin and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Lipids 1984; 19 :96-102
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  28. Evans ES, Schooley RA, Evans AB, Jenkins CA, Taurog A. Biological evidence for extrathyroidal thyroxine formation. Endocrinology. 1966; 78:983-1001.
  29. Dobson J.E. The iodine factor in health and evolution. The Geographical Review. 1998; 88:1-28
  30. Panel on Micronutrients, Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC; National Academy Press, 2001
  31. Marani L, Venturi S, Masala R. Role of iodine in delayed immune response. Isr J Med Sci. 1985 Oct;21(10):864.

Ovenstående er citeret fra dr. Venturis artikel-site: https://sites.google.com/site/iodinestudies/morosini hvor også den oprindelige italienske version af artiklen er hostet, mens den seneste version af artiklen på engelsk, kan downloades fra dette link (Elsevier - Researchgate.org): http://www.researchgate.net/publicat...a33865be93.pdf, eller også har jeg den, i fald artiklen forsvinder fra åbent internet...

Enjoy.

Forresten... var der flere som sagde og fortsat siger at...

"kjertelen monterer 4 stk. Jodatomer på Thyrosinet og så har vi et T4 molekyl. Dette T4 bruker ikke kroppen til noe, men det er utgangspunktet til bla. annet stoffskifteprosessen. Alle som har et fungerende kjertelsystem må ha Jod til denne prosessen. Dette er imidlertid det eneste i kroppen som bruker jod. Det vil si at hvis du IKKE har et fungerende kjertelsystem og spiser ferdig konstruerte T4 thyroxiner så er jo disse fiks ferdige MED Jod. Den Jod som evetuellt finnes i ditt legeme vil ikke bli brukt til noe somhelst og kan hos flere av oss skape problemer istedenfor"?

Jeah... right! Kun guderne ved, hvor mange menneskers helbred og liv blev skadet af denne påstand. Bare fortsæt med at lytte til det sindssyge vrøvl, hvis dit helbred og fremtid er dig IKKE kære.